Oct 21

蜘蛛精甘做食肉动物 飞丝走线诱骗黑寡妇

作者: 如果爱 iflove.com 自然传奇

蜘蛛精张牙舞爪,黑寡妇飞丝走线;蜘蛛王风风火火,红蜘蛛见人就咬。经过数百万年的进化,蜘蛛已经成为高度复杂的食肉动物。它们凭借高超的捕杀策略与极强的环境适应能力,一跃成为生物界中的佼佼者。为了填饱自己的肚子,它们练出了飞丝走线的绝活儿。蜘蛛精甘做食肉动物 飞丝走线诱骗黑寡妇。如果爱 www.iflove.com温情献阅,蜘蛛侠与您相约,惊险不容错过!精彩尽在传奇saga节目,敬请关注,Coming soon.

中文解说词:蜘蛛精甘做食肉动物 飞丝走线诱骗黑寡妇
English Title: Spider Traps: Cobweb to Kill
(字数:456 撰稿:iflove.com专栏作家陈家伟,转载请注明出处)

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Keywords: Iflove TV, Man and Nature, Animals, Natures, Pleasure of Nature, Fabulous Nature, Animal, Saga Download, Documentary Download, Spider Man, Spider, carnivore, predator, Spider Game, Cobweb, StarScream, Ancient spider, King Spider

如果爱 www.iflove.com火爆推出,Saga传奇节目下载伴您每一天!即将为您推出的精彩美文是:《蜘蛛精甘做食肉动物 飞丝走线诱骗黑寡妇》,自然妙趣不容错过!英文标题:Spider Traps: Cobweb to Kill。感动即将开始,敬请期待!Coming soon……

亲爱的宝贝,如果您留心观察,您会发现这个世界远比我们想象的要复杂和奇妙,许多微小的食肉动物居然有着极其高超的捕杀技巧。在今天的如果爱www.iflove.com中,我们将为您介绍一种著名的八条腿捕猎高手,它们是许多物种的克星。它们就是大名鼎鼎的蜘蛛

蜘蛛王风风火火,红蜘蛛见人就咬

Spiders are ancient animals with a history going back many millions of years. They have always been with us, an ancient source of fear and fascination. They are abundant and widespread and are natural controllers of insect populations. Wherever you live, you’re always close to a spider. For more information about Spider or Spider Man, please visit www.iflove.com

Spider diversity: Find out what spiders are, where they came from and how they got around, as well as Australia’s own diverse spider fauna.

A Spider toolkit: Discover the highly developed range of tools spiders use for sensing the world, catching and eating food, mating, and protecting themselves. Spiders also make the most versatile tool of all – silk.

A spider’s life: Spiders live in a challenging world and not all survive to a ripe old age. Learn about how spiders feed, reproduce, develop and protect themselves.

Spiders in art and culture: Here are just some of the ways spiders have featured in the rituals, beliefs, art, entertainment and literature of people from all over the world, from ancient through to modern times.

Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing chelicerate arthropods that have eight legs, and chelicerae modified into fangs that inject venom. They are the largest order of arachnids and rank seventh in total species diversity among all other groups of organisms[1]. Spiders are found world-wide on every continent except for Antarctica, and have become established in nearly every ecological niche with the exception of air and sea colonization. As of 2008, approximately 40,000 spider species, and 109 families have been recorded by taxonomists.[2] However, there has been confusion within the scientific community as to how all these genera should be classified, as evidenced by the over 20 different classifications that have been proposed since 1900.[3] For more information about Spider or Spider Man, please visit www.iflove.com

Anatomically, spiders differ from other arthropods in that the usual body segments are fused into two tagmata, the cephalothorax and abdomen, and joined by a small, cylindrical pedicel. Unlike insects, spiders do not have antennae. In all except the most primitive group, the Mesothelae, spiders have the most centralized nervous systems of all arthropods, as all their ganglia are fused into one mass in the cephalothorax. Unlike most arthropods, spiders have no extensor muscles in their limbs and instead extend them by hydraulic pressure.

Their abdomens bear appendages that have been modified into spinnerets that extrude silk from up to six types of silk glands within their abdomen. Spider webs vary widely in size, shape and the amount of sticky thread used. It now appears that the spiral orb web may be one of the earliest forms, and spiders that produce tangled cobwebs are more abundant and diverse than orb-web spiders. Spider-like arachnids with silk-producing spigots appear in the Devonian period about 386 million years ago, but these animals apparently lacked spinnerets. True spiders have been found in Carboniferous rocks from 318 to 299 million years ago, and are very similar to the most primitive surviving order, the Mesothelae. The main groups of modern spiders, Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae, first appear in the Triassic period, before 200 million years ago. For more information about Spider or Spider Man, please visit www.iflove.com

A vegetarian species was described in 2008,[4] but all other known species are predators, mostly preying on insects and on other spiders, although a few large species also take birds and lizards. Spiders use a wide range of strategies to capture prey: trapping it in sticky webs, lassoing it with sticky bolas, mimicking the prey to avoid detection, or running it down. Most detect prey mainly by sensing vibrations, but the active hunters have acute vision, and hunters of the genus Portia show signs of intelligence in their choice of tactics and ability to develop new ones. Spiders’ guts are too narrow to take solids, and they liquidize their food by flooding it with digestive enzymes and grinding it with the bases of their pedipalps, as they do not have true jaws.

Male spiders identify themselves by a variety of complex courtship rituals to avoid being eaten by the females. Males of most species survive a few matings, limited mainly by their short life spans. Females weave silk egg-cases, each of which may contain hundreds of eggs. Females of many species care for their young, for example by carrying them around or by sharing food with them. A minority of species are social, building communal webs that may house anywhere from a few to 50,000 individuals. Social behavior ranges from precarious toleration, as in the aggressive widow spiders, to co-operative hunting and food-sharing. Although most spiders live for at most two years, tarantulas and other mygalomorph spiders can live up to 25 years in captivity.

While the venom of a few species is dangerous to humans, scientists are now researching the use of spider venom in medicine and as non-polluting pesticides. Spider silk provides a combination of lightness, strength and elasticity that is superior to that of synthetic materials, and spider silk genes have been inserted into mammals and plants to see if these can be used as silk factories. As a result of their wide range of behaviors, spiders have become common symbols in art and mythology symbolizing various combinations of patience, cruelty and creative powers. For more information about Spider or Spider Man, please visit www.iflove.com

Spider Body plan

Spiders are chelicerates and therefore arthropods.[6] As arthropods they have: segmented bodies with jointed limbs, all covered in a cuticle made of chitin and proteins; heads that are composed of several segments that fuse during the development of the embryo.[7] Being chelicerates, their bodies consist of two tagmata, sets of segments that serve similar functions: the foremost one, called the cephalothorax or prosoma, is a complete fusion of the segments that in an insect would form two separate tagmata, the head and thorax; the rear tagma is called the abdomen or opisthosoma.[6] In spiders the cephalothorax and abodomen are connected by a a small cylindrical section, the pedicel.[8] The pattern of segment fusion that forms chelicerates’ heads is unique among arthropods, and what would normally be the first head segment disappears at an early stage of development, so that chelicerates lack the antennae typical of most arthropods. In fact chelicerates’ only appendages ahead of the mouth are a pair of chelicerae, and they lack anything that would function directly as “jaws”.[7][9] The first appendages behind the mouth are called pedipalps, and serve different functions within different groups of chelicerates.[6]

Phidippus audax, jumping spider: The basal parts of the chelicerae are the two iridescent green mouthparts.Spiders and scorpions are members of one chelicerate group, the arachnids.[9] Scorpions’ chelicerae have three sections and are generally a modest pair of claws that they use in feeding,[10] Spiders’ have two sections and terminate in fangs that are generally venomous, and fold away behind the upper sections while not in use, and the upper sections generally have thick “beards” that filter solid lumps out of their food, as spiders can take only liquid food;[8] On the other hand scorpions’ pedipalps generally form large claws for capturing prey,[10] while those of spiders are fairly small sensors whose bases also act as an extension of the mouth; in addition those of male spiders have enlarged last sections used for sperm transfer.[8]

In spiders the cephalothorax and abdomen are joined by a small, cylindrical pedicel, which enables the abdomen to move independently when producing silk. The upper surface of the cephalothorax is covered by a single, convex carapace while the underside is covered by two rather flat plates. The abdomen is soft and egg-shaped. It shows no sign of segmentation, except that the primitive Mesothelae, whose living members are the Liphistiidae, have segmented plates on the upper surface.[8] For more information about Spider or Spider Man, please visit www.iflove.com

Spider Circulation and respiration

Nervous system Digestive & excretory system Circulatory system Respiratory system Reproductive system 1 Fang (chelicera) 2 Venom gland 3 Brain 4 Pumping stomach 5 Forward aorta branch 6 Digestive cecum 7 Heart 8 Midgut 9 Malphigian tubules10 Cloacal chamber11 Rear aorta12 Spinneret13 Silk gland14 Trachea15 Ovary (female)16 Book lung17 Nerve cord18 Legs19 PedipalpSpider’s main organs[11]

Like other arthropods, spiders are coelomates in which the coelom is reduced to small areas round the reproductive and excretory systems. Its place is largely taken by a hemocoel, a cavity that runs most of the length of the body and through which blood flows. The heart is a tube in the upper part of the body, with a few ostia that act as non-return valves allowing blood to enter the heart from the hemocoel but prevent it from leaving before it reaches the front end,[12] However in spiders it occupies only the upper part of the abdomen, and blood is discharged into the hemocoel by one artery that opens at the rear end of the abdomen and by branching arteries that pass through the pedicle and open into several parts of the cephalothorax. Hence spiders have open circulatory systems.[8] The blood of many spiders that have book lungs contains the respiratory pigment hemocyanin to make oxygen transport more efficient.[9]

Spiders have developed several different respiratory anatomies, based on book lungs, a tracheal system, or both. Mygalomorph and Mesothelae spiders have two pairs of book lungs filled with haemolymph, where openings on the ventral surface of the abdomen allow air to enter and diffuse oxygen. This is also the case for some basal araneomorph spiders like the family Hypochilidae, but the remaining members of this group have just the anterior pair of book lungs intact while the posterior pair of breathing organs are partly or fully modified into tracheae, through which oxygen is diffused into the haemolymph or directly to the tissue and organs.[8] The trachea system has most likely evolved in small ancestors to help resist desiccation.[9] The trachea were originally connected to the surroundings through a pair of openings called spiracles, but in the majority of spiders this pair of spiracles has fused into a single one in the middle, and moved backwards close to the spinnerets.[8] Spiders that have tracheae generally have higher metabolic rates and better water conservation.[13] For more information about Spider or Spider Man, please visit www.iflove.com

Spider Feeding, digestion and excretion

A Xysticus sp. spider paralysing a flyUniquely among chelicerates, the final sections of spiders’ chelicerae are fangs, and the great majority of spiders can use them to inject venom into prey from venom glands in the roots of the chelicerae.[8] Like most arachnids including scorpions,[9] spiders have a narrow gut that can only cope with liquid food and spiders have two sets of filters to keep solids out.[8] They use one of two different systems of external digestion. Some pump digestive enzymes from the midgut into the prey and then suck the liquified tissues of the prey into the gut, eventually leaving behind the empty husk of the prey. Others grind the prey to pulp using the chelicerae and the bases of the pedipalps, while flooding it with enzymes; in these species the chelicerae and the bases of the pedipalps form a preoral cavity that holds the food they are processing.[8]

The stomach in the cephalothorax acts as a pump that sends the food deeper into the digestive system. The mid gut bears many digestive ceca, compartments with no other exit, that extract nutrients from the food; most are in the abdomen, which is dominated by the digestive system, but a few are found in the cephalothorax.[8]

Most spiders convert nitrogenous waste products into uric acid, which can be excreted as a dry material. Malphigian tubules (“little tubes”) extract these wastes from the blood in the hemocoel and dump them into the cloacal chamber, from which they are expelled through the anus.[8] Production of uric acid and its removal via Malphigian tubules are a water-conserving feature that has evolved independently in several arthropod lineages that can live far away from water,[14] for example the tubules of insects and arachnids develop from completely different parts of the embryo.[9] However a few primitive spiders, the sub-order Mesothelae and infra-order Mygalomorphae, retain the ancestral arthropod nephridia (“little kidneys”),[8] which use large amounts of water to excrete nitrogenous waste products as ammonia.[14]

Spider Central nervous system

The basic arthropod central nervous system consists of a pair of nerve cords running below the gut, with paired ganglia as local control centers in all segments; a brain formed by fusion of the ganglia for the head segments ahead of and behind the mouth, so that the esophagus is encircled by this conglomeration of ganglia.[15] Except for the primitive Mesothelae, of which the Liphistiidae are the sole surviving family, spiders have the much more centralized nervous system that is typical of arachnids: all the ganglia of all segments behind the esophagus are fused, so that the cephalothorax is largely filled with nervous tissue and there are no ganglia in the abdomen;[8][9][15] in the Mesothelae, the ganglia of the abdomen and the rear part of the cephalothorax remain unfused.[13] For more information about Spider or Spider Man, please visit www.iflove.com

Spider Sense organs

蜘蛛精张牙舞爪,黑寡妇飞丝走线;蜘蛛王风风火火,红蜘蛛见人就咬。经过进化,蜘蛛成为食肉动物。凭借捕杀策略与环境适应能力,一跃成为生物界中的佼佼者。为了填饱肚子,练出飞丝走线的绝活儿。欣赏蜘蛛精的非凡技艺,敬请浏览如果爱www.RuGuoAi.com。

This jumping spider’s main ocelli (center pair) are very acute. The outer pair are “secondary eyes” and there are other pairs of secondary eyes on the sides and top of its head.[16]Most spiders have four pairs of eyes on the top-front area of the cephalothorax, arranged in patterns that vary from one family to another.[8] The pair at the front are of the type called pigment-cup ocelli (“little eyes”), which in most arthropods are only capable of detecting the direction from which light is coming, using the shadow cast by the walls of the cup. However the main eyes at the front of spiders’ heads are pigment-cup ocelli that are capable of forming images.[16][17] The other eyes are thought to be derived from the compound eyes of the ancestral chelicerates, but no longer have the separate facets typical of compound eyes. Unlike the main eyes, in many spiders these secondary eyes detect light reflected from a reflective tapetum, and wolf spiders can be spotted by torch light reflected from the tapeta. On the other hand jumping spiders’ secondary eyes have no tapeta.[8] Jumping spiders’ visual acuity exceeds by a factor of ten that of dragonflies, which have by far the best vision among insects; in fact the human eye is only about five times sharper than a jumping spider’s. They achieve this by a telephoto-like series of lenses, a four-layer retina and the ability to swivel their eyes and integrate images from different stages in the scan. The downside is that the scanning and integrating processes are relatively slow.[18]

As with other arthropods, spiders’ cuticles would block out information about the outside world, except that they are penetrated by many sensors or connections from sensors to the nervous system. In fact spiders and other arthropods have modified their cuticles into elaborate arrays of sensors. Various touch sensors, mostly bristles called setae, respond to different levels of force, from strong contact to very weak air currents. Chemical sensors provide equivalents of taste and smell, often by means of setae.[16] Spiders also have in the joints of their limbs slit sensillae that detect forces and vibrations. In web-building spiders all these mechanical and chemical sensors are more important than the eyes, while the eyes are most important to spiders that hunt actively.[8] For more information about Spider or Spider Man, please visit www.iflove.com

Like most arthropods, spiders lack balance and acceleration sensors and rely on their eyes to tell them which way is up. Arthropods’ proprioceptors, sensors that report the force exerted by muscles and the degree of bending in the body and joints, are well understood. On the other hand little is known about what other internal sensors spiders or other arthropods may have.[16]

Spider Locomotion

Although all arthropods use muscles attached to the inside of the exoskeleton to flex their limbs, spiders and a few other groups still use hydraulic pressure to extend them, a system inherited from their pre-arthropod ancestors.[19] As a result a spider with a punctured cephalothorax cannot extend its legs, and the legs of dead spiders curl up.[8] Spiders can generate pressures up to eight times their resting level to extend their legs,[20] and jumping spiders can jump up to 50 times their own length by suddenly increasing the blood pressure in the third or fourth pair of legs.[8]

Most spiders that hunt actively, rather than relying on webs, have dense tufts of fine hairs between the paired claws at the tips of their legs. These tufts, known as scopulae, consist of bristles whose ends are split into as many as 1,000 branches, and enable spiders with scopulae to walk up vertical glass and upside down on ceilings. It appears that scopulae get their grip from contact with extremely thin layers of water on surfaces.[8] Spiders, like most other arachnids, keep at least four legs on the surface while walking or running. For more information about Spider or Spider Man, please visit www.iflove.com

亲爱的宝贝,如果您留心观察,您会发现这个世界远比我们想象的要复杂和奇妙,许多微小的食肉动物居然有着极其高超的捕杀技巧。在今天的Saga传奇节目中,我们将为您介绍一种著名的八条腿捕猎高手,它们是许多物种的克星。它们就是大名鼎鼎的蜘蛛王。

蜘蛛精张牙舞爪,黑寡妇飞丝走线;蜘蛛王风风火火,红蜘蛛见人就咬。经过数百万年的进化,蜘蛛已经成了高度复杂的食肉动物。在蜘蛛家族中,黑寡妇可谓威名遐迩,出尽风头。它是一种眼疾手快的蜘蛛,毒性比响尾蛇还要强上15倍。它将蜘蛛网布置在空中,然后静待那些粗心大意的过客,就连蝎子也对它敬畏有加。好,现在就让我们打开如果爱www.iflove.com,一起在如果爱电视节目中目睹蜘蛛侠的风采吧!

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